Childhood Maltreatment - Confirmed Maltreatment - Phenotype

John, A., McGregor, J., Marchant, A., Delpozobanos, M., Farr, I., Nurmatov, U., Kemp, A., Naughton

PH1115 / 2457 Clinical-Coded Phenotype

  1. Overview

    Phenotype Type
    Disease or syndrome
    Sex
    Both
    Valid Event Date Range
    No data
    Coding System
    ICD10 codesRead codes v2
    Data Sources
    No data
    Collections
    Adolescent Data Platform (ADP)DATAMINDPhenotype Library
    Tags
    No data
  2. Definition

    We have developed and externally validated a list of codes to identify childhood maltreatment. There are separate code lists for ICD 10 and Read codes.This definition encompasses neglect, physical and sexual maltreatment, and includes codes for genital mutilation, and child protection codes (read code list only).

    These codes were developed for children aged 0 to 18 years, unless otherwise specified. We identify childhood maltreatment using the concepts described below. Each coding system has multiple concepts corresponding to subtypes of maltreatment (neglect, physical, sexual, psychological and other).

    For Read Code lists within each subtype of maltreatment are:

    1. Core code lists that are to be included in all studies seeking to identify maltreatment
    2. Historical codes lists indicating historical maltreatment (e.g. history of child abuse).

    The latter should be excluded in studies seeking to identify incident (first ever) cases of maltreatment.

    This code lists has been externally validated against a clinical database of clinician confirmed hospital presenting maltreatment as the gold standard (John et al., in press). Our codes lists were developed from existing literature (e.g. Chandan et al., 2020; Chandan et al., 2019; Syed et al., 2022; Woodman et al., 2012), conducting our own searches for codes that may be indicate maltreatment, risk or cause for concern; and finally based upon clinician judgement. This list is more comprehensive than those previously published encompassing codes for genital mutilation and child protection codes (child protection codes in read codes only).

    In keeping with previous research, we tiered our code list into those strongly indicating maltreatment (current list), and those codes that may indicate possible or suspected maltreatment or potential vulnerability (See Possible Child Maltreatment) (Chandan et al., 2019; Syed et al., 2022).

    Neglect

    These code list refers to codes that unequivocally refer to maltreatment by neglect. These have been stratified by age (0-1 years and 0-18 years). Both of the core lists must be included to identify neglect. The decision to include historical codes must be made based on the individual study (see above)

    Physical Maltreatment

    This list refers to codes that unequivocally refer to Physical maltreatment. All codes for physical maltreatment refer to individuals aged 0-18 years with no further age stratification. The core list must be included to identify physical maltreatment. The decision to include historical codes must be made based on the individual study (see above).

    Psychological Maltreatment

    This list refers to codes that unequivocally refer to psychological maltreatment. All codes for psychological maltreatment refer to individuals aged 0-18 years with no further age stratification. The core list must be included to identify psychological maltreatment. The decision to include historical codes must be made based on the individual study (see above).

    Sexual Maltreatment

    This list refers to codes that unequivocally refer to sexual maltreatment. The core lists must be included to identify sexual maltreatment. The decision to include historical codes must be made based on the individual study (see above).

    Other Maltreatment

    This list refers to codes that unequivocally refer to maltreatment that doesn't fit into one of the above categories. All codes for other maltreatment refer to individuals aged 0-18 years with no further age stratification. The core list must be included to identify ‘other’ maltreatment. The decision to include historical codes must be made based on the individual study (see above).

  3. Implementation

    Implementation

    No data
  4. Clinical Code List

  5. Publication

    • John, A., McGregor, J., Marchant, A., Delpozobanos, M., Farr, I., Nurmatov, U., Kemp, A., Naughton, A Case-finding for CM: an external validation study using a clinically assessed hospital-based cohort of suspected cases. [in press]

    • John, A., McGregor, J., Fone, D., Dunstan, F., Cornish, R., Lyons, R. A., & Lloyd, K. R. (2016). Case-finding for common mental disorders of anxiety and depression in primary care: an external validation of routinely collected data. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 16(1), 1-10.

    • Chandan, J. S., Gokhale, K. M., Bradbury-Jones, C., Nirantharakumar, K., Bandyopadhyay, S., & Taylor, J. (2020). Exploration of trends in the incidence and prevalence of childhood maltreatment and domestic abuse recording in UK primary care: a retrospective cohort study using the health improvement network database. BMJ Open, 10(6), e036949. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036949

      (DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036949)
    • Chandan, J. S., Thomas, T., Gokhale, K. M., Bandyopadhyay, S., Taylor, J., & Nirantharakumar, K. (2019). The burden of mental ill health associated with childhood maltreatment in the UK, using The Health Improvement Network database: a population-based retrospective cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry, 6(11), 926-934. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30369-4

      (DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30369-4)
    • Syed, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Allister, J., Feder, G., Li, L., & Gilbert, R. (2022). Identifying adverse childhood experiences with electronic health records of linked mothers and children in England: a multistage development and validation study. The Lancet Digital Health.

    • Woodman, J., Freemantle, N., Allister, J., de Lusignan, S., Gilbert, R., & Petersen, I. (2012). Variation in recorded child maltreatment concerns in UK primary care records: a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. PLoS One, 7(11), e49808. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049808

      (DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0049808)

    Citation Example

    John, A., McGregor, J., Marchant, A., Delpozobanos, M., Farr, I., Nurmatov, U., Kemp, A., Naughton. PH1115 / 2457 - Childhood Maltreatment - Confirmed Maltreatment - Phenotype. Phenotype Library [Online]. 25 September 2023. Available from: http://phenotypes.healthdatagateway.org/phenotypes/PH1115/version/2457/detail/. [Accessed 24 June 2024]

  6. API

    To Export Phenotype Details:

    FormatAPI
    JSON site_root/api/v1/phenotypes/PH1115/version/2457/detail/?format=json
    R Package

    # Download here

    library(ConceptLibraryClient)


    # Connect to API

    client = ConceptLibraryClient::Connection$new(public=TRUE)


    # Get details of phenotype

    phenotype_details = client$phenotypes$get_detail(
     'PH1115',
     version_id=2457
    )

    Py Package

    # Download here

    from pyconceptlibraryclient import Client


    # Connect to API

    client = Client(public=True)


    # Get codelist of phenotype

    phenotype_codelist = client.phenotypes.get_detail(
     'PH1115',
     version_id=2457
    )

    To Export Phenotype Code List:

    FormatAPI
    JSON site_root/api/v1/phenotypes/PH1115/version/2457/export/codes/?format=json
    CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH1115/version/2457/export/codes/
    R Package

    # Download here

    library(ConceptLibraryClient)


    # Connect to API

    client = ConceptLibraryClient::Connection$new(public=TRUE)


    # Get codelist of phenotype

    phenotype_codelist = client$phenotypes$get_codelist(
     'PH1115',
     version_id=2457
    )

    Py Package

    # Download here

    from pyconceptlibraryclient import Client


    # Connect to API

    client = Client(public=True)


    # Get codelist of phenotype

    phenotype_codelist = client.phenotypes.get_codelist(
     'PH1115',
     version_id=2457
    )

  7. Version History

    Version IDNameOwnerPublish date
    2457 Childhood Maltreatment - Confirmed Maltreatment - Phenotype ieuan.scanlon2023-09-25currently shown