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Drugs

Caroline Fairhust, Fabiola Martin, Ian Watt, Tim Doran, Martin Bland, William J Brackenbury

Type
Drug
ID
PH455
Version ID
910
Data Sources
Valid event data range
start - 31/12/2014
Sex
Female, Male
Agreement Date
2016-09-06
Coding system
Read codes v2
Tags /Collections
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library

Definition

Introduction:

Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC)- inhibiting drugs are commonly used to treat epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmia. VGSCs are also widely expressed in various cancers, including those of the breast, bowel and prostate. A number of VGSCinhibiting drugs have been shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, invasion, tumour growth and metastasis in preclinical models, suggesting that VGSCs may be novel molecular targets for cancer treatment. Surprisingly, we previously found that prior exposure to VGSC-inhibiting drugs may be associated with reduced overall survival in patients with cancer, but we were unable to control for the cause of death or indication for prescription. The purpose of the present study is to interrogate a different database to further investigate the relationship between VGSC-inhibiting drugs and cancer-specific survival.

Methods and analysis:

A cohort study using primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database will include patients with diagnosis of breast, bowel and prostate cancer (13 000). The primary outcome will be cancer-specific survival from the date of cancer diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression will be used to compare survival of patients taking VGSC-inhibiting drugs (including antiepileptic drugs and class I antiarrhythmic agents) with patients with cancer not taking these drugs, adjusting for cancer type, age and sex. Drug exposure will be treated as a time-varying covariate to account for potential immortal time bias. Various sensitivity and secondary analyses will be performed.

Publications

  • Caroline Fairhust, Fabiola Martin, Ian Watt, Tim Doran, Martin Bland, William J Brackenbury, Sodium channel-inhibiting drugs and cancer survival: protocol for a cohort study using the CPRD primary care database. BMJ Open, 6(e0111661), 2016.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 581
Code Description Entity type Category Coding System (Read)
10111 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
10263 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
10400 Mexiletine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
10553 Disopyramide phosphate res47: Drugs drug Read
10687 Quinidine bisulphate res47: Drugs drug Read
1069 Adrenaline acid tartrate/Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
107 Phenytoin Sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
10871 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
11075 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
1119 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
11237 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
11445 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
1158 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
11696 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
118 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
11809 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
11873 Zonisamide res47: Drugs drug Read
11960 Mexiletine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
12280 Mexiletine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
12322 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
12469 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
12821 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
12880 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
1291 Quinidine Bisulphate res47: Drugs drug Read
12931 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
12932 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
12971 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
12982 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
13112 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
13140 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
13152 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
13326 Procainamide hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
13434 Quinidine Bisulphate res47: Drugs drug Read
13524 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
13549 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
13608 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
1370 Phenytoin Sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
13890 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
13922 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
1398 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
14157 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
14199 Oxcarbazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
14418 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
14451 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
14510 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
14855 Lidocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
14856 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
14857 Phenytoin res47: Drugs drug Read
15082 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
15126 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
15313 Propafenone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
15320 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
15338 Zonisamide res47: Drugs drug Read
15369 Lidocaine hydrochloride/Adrenaline acid tartrate res47: Drugs drug Read
15459 Mexiletine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
1550 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
15650 Valproic acid res47: Drugs drug Read
1573 Propafenone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
15851 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
16021 Valproic acid res47: Drugs drug Read
16149 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
16262 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
16609 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
16927 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
17047 Lidocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
17119 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
17152 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
17177 Phenytoin res47: Drugs drug Read
17251 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
17428 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
17429 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
17978 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
18011 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
18043 Lidocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
18077 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
18277 Procainamide hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
18385 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
18567 Oxcarbazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
18614 Valproic acid res47: Drugs drug Read
18616 Lidocaine hydrochloride/Adrenaline acid tartrate res47: Drugs drug Read
18762 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
18763 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
18764 Procainamide Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
18781 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
188 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
18838 Riluzole res47: Drugs drug Read
18886 Valproic acid res47: Drugs drug Read
19296 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
19500 Zonisamide res47: Drugs drug Read
19822 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
20004 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
20539 Tocainide Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
20600 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
2062 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
2065 Lidocaine hydrochloride/Adrenaline acid tartrate res47: Drugs drug Read
2079 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
2080 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
2081 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
2082 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
2085 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
20882 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
2128 Phenytoin Sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
21441 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
21854 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
2305 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
23508 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
2357 Chlorhexidine gluconate/Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
2388 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
24153 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
24176 Zonisamide res47: Drugs drug Read
24177 Zonisamide res47: Drugs drug Read
24637 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
24708 Moracizine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
24709 Moracizine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
24901 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
24963 Lidocaine hydrochloride/Adrenaline acid tartrate res47: Drugs drug Read
2520 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
25482 Disopyramide phosphate res47: Drugs drug Read
25536 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
25838 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
25903 Fosphenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
25969 Mexiletine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
26012 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
263 Lidocaine/Prilocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
26500 Lidocaine hydrochloride/Phenylephrine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
26894 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
26902 Oxcarbazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
27113 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
2716 Disopyramide phosphate res47: Drugs drug Read
27161 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
2717 Disopyramide res47: Drugs drug Read
27193 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
27321 Disopyramide phosphate res47: Drugs drug Read
27692 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
27760 Zonisamide res47: Drugs drug Read
2782 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
27967 Fosphenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
28155 Tocainide Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
2822 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
2823 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
2824 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
28315 Procainamide Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
28345 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
2859 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
28824 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
29024 Quinidine Bisulphate res47: Drugs drug Read
29456 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
29608 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
29619 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
29620 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
30047 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
30081 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
30149 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
3030 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
30392 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
30433 Disopyramide phosphate res47: Drugs drug Read
30497 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
30509 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
3058 Quinidine bisulphate res47: Drugs drug Read
3068 Phenytoin Sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
30763 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
30990 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
3107 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
31079 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
31209 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
31331 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
3134 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
32109 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
32164 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
32304 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
32351 Mexiletine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
32553 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
32591 Prilocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
32613 Moracizine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
32900 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
32920 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
32931 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
33058 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
33106 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
33119 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
33391 Quinidine Bisulphate res47: Drugs drug Read
3350 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34120 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34144 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
34150 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34151 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34178 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34370 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
34414 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34515 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
34574 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
34592 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
34626 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34632 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34699 Phenytoin res47: Drugs drug Read
34707 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34751 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
34759 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
34830 Lidocaine hydrochloride/Adrenaline acid tartrate res47: Drugs drug Read
34851 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
34883 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
34904 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
34958 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
35024 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
35043 Lidocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
35471 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
35517 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
35520 Flecainide Acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
3569 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
35732 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
35747 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
35755 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
3576 Chlorhexidine gluconate/Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
36318 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
36415 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
36633 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
36634 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
3667 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
37058 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
37306 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
3731 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
3733 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
3734 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
37416 Rufinamide res47: Drugs drug Read
37512 Rufinamide res47: Drugs drug Read
37515 Rufinamide res47: Drugs drug Read
37584 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
37593 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
37611 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
37800 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
37895 Rufinamide res47: Drugs drug Read
3845 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
38507 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
38508 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
38789 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
3881 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
3886 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
38939 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
38949 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
39039 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
39097 Lidocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
39126 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
39259 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
39276 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
39279 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
39356 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
39385 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
39427 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
39452 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
39453 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
39506 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
39550 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
39615 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
39712 Ranolazine res47: Drugs drug Read
39713 Ranolazine res47: Drugs drug Read
39714 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
39715 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
3975 Riluzole res47: Drugs drug Read
3987 Chlorhexidine gluconate/Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
39930 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
39952 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
39971 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
39990 Ranolazine res47: Drugs drug Read
40055 Flecainide Acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
40070 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
4026 Disopyramide phosphate res47: Drugs drug Read
40291 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
40332 Lidocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
40372 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
40395 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
40400 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
40403 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
40404 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
40451 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
40521 Rufinamide res47: Drugs drug Read
40658 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
4066 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
40910 Mexiletine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
40969 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
41037 Ranolazine res47: Drugs drug Read
41043 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
41073 Ranolazine res47: Drugs drug Read
41137 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
41162 Lacosamide res47: Drugs drug Read
41378 Ranolazine res47: Drugs drug Read
41530 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
41551 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
41614 Disopyramide res47: Drugs drug Read
41726 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
41735 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
4175 Phenytoin res47: Drugs drug Read
41758 Eslicarbazepine Acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
4195 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
41972 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
42038 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
42090 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
42145 Eslicarbazepine Acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
42789 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
43112 Dronedarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
43178 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
432 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
43387 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
43417 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
43451 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
43501 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
43502 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
43540 Flecainide acetate res47: Drugs drug Read
43571 Lidocaine Hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
43648 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
4366 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
43742 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
43919 Rufinamide res47: Drugs drug Read
44259 Disopyramide res47: Drugs drug Read
44437 Dronedarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
44472 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
44718 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
44719 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
4490 Phenytoin res47: Drugs drug Read
44903 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
4495 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
4502 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
45106 Sodium Valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
45344 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
45419 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
45572 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
4586 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
45903 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
45941 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
46572 Topiramate res47: Drugs drug Read
46774 Sodium valproate res47: Drugs drug Read
46775 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
46888 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
46938 Amiodarone hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
46972 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
47014 Phenytoin res47: Drugs drug Read
47143 Zonisamide res47: Drugs drug Read
47294 Carbamazepine res47: Drugs drug Read
47658 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug Read
47670 Phenytoin sodium res47: Drugs drug Read
47817 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
4786 Lidocaine/Prilocaine res47: Drugs drug Read
47963 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
48164 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
48182 Lamotrigine res47: Drugs drug Read
48390 Lidocaine hydrochloride res47: Drugs drug