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Smoking

Rebecca M Joseph, Mohammad Movahedi, William G Dixon, Deborah PM Symmons

Type
Lifestyle Risk Factor
ID
PH489
Version ID
1522
Data Sources
Valid event data range
01/01/1998 - 10/01/2012
Sex
Female, Male
Agreement Date
2017-09-26
Coding system
Read codes v2
Tags /Collections
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library

Definition

Objectives:

To investigate the associations between smoking status, smoking cessation and hospitalisations for cardiovascular events (CVE) and respiratory tract infections (RTI ) in an inception cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods:

The study was set within UK primary care electronic health records (the Clinical Practice Research Datalink) linked to hospital inpatient data (Hospital Episode Statistics). Patients with RA were followed from diagnosis to hospitalisation with a record of CVE or RTI , leaving their general practice, death, or 10 January 2012, whichever was earliest. Smoking status (never, current, former) was defined using primary care data and could vary over time. Survival analysis was performed using Cox regression (first event) and conditional risk set models (multiple RTI s).

Results:

5677 patients were included in the cohort: 68% female, median age 61 years. The age-adjusted and sexadjusted risks of hospitalisation for CVE or RTI were more than twice as high in current vs never smokers (CVE HR (95% CI) 2.19 (1.44 to 3.31); RTI 2.18 (1.71 to 2.78)). The risks for both outcomes were significantly higher in current compared with former smokers (CVE 1.51 (1.04 to 2.19), RTI 1.29 (1.04 to 1.61)). For each additional year of smoking cessation, the risk of first CVE and RTI hospitalisation fell significantly, approximately 25% and 15% respectively in the adjusted models.

Conclusions:

Patients with RA who smoke have an increased risk of hospitalisation with CVE or RTI compared with never and former smokers. The risk decreases for each additional year of smoking cessation. Patients with RA who smoke should be advised to stop smoking.

Publications

  • Rebecca M Joseph, Mohammad Movahedi, William G Dixon, Deborah PM Symmons, Risks of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation on hospitalisations for cardiovascular events and respiratory infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis a retrospective cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. RMD Open, 3(2), e000506, 2017.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 103
Code Description Category Coding System (Read) Entity type
137..11 Smoker - amount smoked diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1371 Never smoked tobacco diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1371.11 Non-smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1372 Trivial smoker - < 1 cig/day diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1372.11 Occasional smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1373 Light smoker - 1-9 cigs/day diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1374 Moderate smoker - 10-19 cigs/d diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1375 Heavy smoker - 20-39 cigs/day diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1376 Very heavy smoker - 40+cigs/d diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1377 Ex-trivial smoker (<1/day) diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1378 Ex-light smoker (1-9/day) diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
1379 Ex-moderate smoker (10-19/day) diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137A.00 Ex-heavy smoker (20-39/day) diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137B.00 Ex-very heavy smoker (40+/day) diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137C.00 Keeps trying to stop smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137F.00 Ex-smoker - amount unknown diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137G.00 Trying to give up smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137H.00 Pipe smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137J.00 Cigar smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137K.00 Stopped smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137K000 Recently stopped smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137L.00 Current non-smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137M.00 Rolls own cigarettes diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137N.00 Ex pipe smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137O.00 Ex cigar smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137P.00 Cigarette smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137P.11 Smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137Q.00 Smoking started diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137Q.11 Smoking restarted diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137R.00 Current smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137S.00 Ex smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137T.00 Date ceased smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137V.00 Smoking reduced diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137b.00 Ready to stop smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137c.00 Thinking about stopping smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137d.00 Not interested in stopping smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137e.00 Smoking restarted diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137f.00 Reason for restarting smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137h.00 Minutes from waking to first tobacco consumption diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137j.00 Ex-cigarette smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137l.00 Ex roll-up cigarette smoker diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
137m.00 Failed attempt to stop smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p..00 Smoking cessation milestones diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p0.00 Negotiated date for cessation of smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p1.00 Smoking status at 4 weeks diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p2.00 Smoking status between 4 and 52 weeks diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p3.00 Smoking status at 52 weeks diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p4.00 Smoking free weeks diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p5.00 Smoking cessation programme start date diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p5000 Practice based smoking cessation programme start date diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p6.00 Carbon monoxide reading at 4 weeks diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p7.00 Smoking status at 12 weeks diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
13p8.00 Lost to smoking cessation follow-up diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
38DH.00 Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
6791 Health ed. - smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
67H6.00 Brief intervention for smoking cessation diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
745H.00 Smoking cessation therapy diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
745H000 Nicotine replacement therapy using nicotine patches diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
745H100 Nicotine replacement therapy using nicotine gum diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
745H200 Nicotine replacement therapy using nicotine inhalator diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
745H300 Nicotine replacement therapy using nicotine lozenges diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
745H400 Smoking cessation drug therapy diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
745Hy00 Other specified smoking cessation therapy diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
745Hz00 Smoking cessation therapy NOS diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8B2B.00 Nicotine replacement therapy diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8B3Y.00 Over the counter nicotine replacement therapy diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8B3f.00 Nicotine replacement therapy provided free diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8BP3.00 Nicotine replacement therapy provided by community pharmacis diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8CAL.00 Smoking cessation advice diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8CAg.00 Smoking cessation advice provided by community pharmacist diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8CdB.00 Stop smoking service opportunity signposted diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8H7i.00 Referral to smoking cessation advisor diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8HBM.00 Stop smoking face to face follow-up diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8HBP.00 Smoking cessation 12 week follow-up diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8HTK.00 Referral to stop-smoking clinic diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8HkQ.00 Referral to NHS stop smoking service diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8I2I.00 Nicotine replacement therapy contraindicated diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8I2J.00 Bupropion contraindicated diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
8IAj.00 Smoking cessation advice declined diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
9N2k.00 Seen by smoking cessation advisor diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
9NS0200 Referral for smoking cessation service offered diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
9km..00 Ex-smoker annual review - enhanced services administration diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
9km..11 Ex-smoker annual review diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
9kn..00 Non-smoker annual review - enhanced services administration diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
9kn..11 Non-smoker annual review diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
9ko..00 Current smoker annual review - enhanced services admin diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
9ko..11 Current smoker annual review diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
E023.00 Nicotine withdrawal diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
E251.00 Tobacco dependence diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
E251000 Tobacco dependence, unspecified diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
E251100 Tobacco dependence, continuous diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
E251300 Tobacco dependence in remission diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
E251z00 Tobacco dependence NOS diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZG23300 Advice on smoking diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZRBm200 Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZRBm211 FTND - Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZRaM.00 Motives for smoking scale diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZRao.00 Occasions for smoking scale diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZRh4.00 Reasons for smoking scale diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZRh4.11 RFS - Reasons for smoking scale diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZV11600 [V]Personal history of tobacco abuse diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZV4K000 [V]Tobacco use diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes
ZV6D800 [V]Tobacco abuse counselling diagnostic Read res52: Smoking Readcodes

API

To Export Phenotype Details:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH489/version/1522/detail/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH489/version/1522/detail/?format=json
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get details of phenotype

details = get_phenotype_detail_by_version('PH489', '1522', api_client=client)

To Export Phenotype Code List:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH489/version/1522/export/codes/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH489/version/1522/export/codes/?format=json
CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH489/version/1522/export/codes/
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get codelists of phenotype

codelists = get_phenotype_code_list('PH489', '1522', api_client=client)

Version History

Version
ID
Name Owner Publish date
1522 Smoking ieuan.scanlon 2021-10-26 currently shown

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