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Anticoagulants

Evangelos Kontopantelis, David A Springate, David Reeves, Darren M. Aschroff, Martin Rutter, Iain Buchan, Tim Doran, Matthias Pierce, Darren M. Ashcroft

Type
Drug
ID
PH495
Version ID
990
Data Sources
Valid event data range
01/04/2006 - 31/03/2012
Sex
Female, Male
Agreement Date
2014-12-16
Coding system
GPRD product codes
Tags /Collections
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library

Definition

Data source:

We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), a large primary care database that holds complete electronic patient records (including diagnoses, prescriptions and referrals) from participating family practices across the UK. A hierarchical clinical coding system (Read) is used to record the data. In July 2012, data were available for 644 practices and 13,772,992 patients. Full details of the database have been provided elsewhere.

Diabetes cohort:

We extracted data from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2012 and, for ease of reporting and analysing, aggregated information into six financial years. Within each year, practice inclusion eligibility was determined by a CPRD assessment algorithm, which informs on practices considered to be of research standard; therefore, our cohort of practices varied over time. For each research standard practice and year, we defined as eligible patients those who were registered with the practice for the full year and were aged 18 years or over in that year. From these patients, using relevant Read codes for type 2 diabetes (e.g. C10F.00: Type 2 diabetes mellitus) and excluding those treated with insulin within 2 years of diagnosis, we identified 246,544 patients over the study period. Diagnoses were not constrained to the study period and a relevant code prior to the study as well as during the study period would flag a patient from the respective year onwards. Data on sex, age and removal from the database due to deaths were available and complete for all patients.We extracted data on diabetes-related macrovascular (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease or amputation) and microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy [chronic kidney disease stages 4–5] or foot ulcer) complications as well as comorbidities (asthma, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease [excluded from microvascular analysis], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, dementia, severe mental illness, heart failure, hypertension, stroke [excluded from macrovascular analysis], cancer, epilepsy, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and hypothyroidism). Although we aimed to include all conditions associated with diabetes, the choice was partially determined by the domains incentivised under the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), for which accuracy of diagnosis is considered high. Information was also extracted on smoking (never smoked, current, exsmoker and missing data),BMI, HbA1c levels (%), cholesterol levels (mmol/l) and systolic/diastolic BP (mmHg). Biometric measurement data were cleaned and we calculated patient means for each year when more than one relevant record was available. Using product lists we determined prescription prevalence (at least one) for relevant medications: ACE inhibitors, acarbose, α-blockers, anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide- 1 agonists, statins and other lipid-lowering drugs, meglitinides , metformin, sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones. For approximately 60% of the practices, records were linked to Office of National Statistics (ONS) mortality data and we had access to death dates for all their patients. For these, using ICD-10 codes (www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/) we were able to estimate deathslinked to specific causes (underlying or in the top three): diabetes (E10–E16), ischaemic heart disease (I21–I22), stroke (I60–I64) or stroke excluding bleeds (excluding I63).

Publications

  • Evangelos Kontopantelis, David A Springate, David Reeves, Darren M. Aschroff, Martin Rutter, Iain Buchan, Tim Doran, Glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol levels and their relationships to clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Diabetologia, 58:505-518, 2015.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 76
Code Description Coding System (CPRD_product_code) Entity type Category
13348 Marevan 5mg tablets (Mercury Pharma Group Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
13501 Dindevan 50mg Tablet (Goldshield Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
13502 Dindevan 10mg Tablet (Goldshield Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
13503 Phenindione 50mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
13504 Phenindione 25mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
13505 Phenindione 10mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
13644 Dindevan 25mg Tablet (Goldshield Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
15006 Sinthrome 4mg Tablet (Alliance Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
15376 Acenocoumarol 4mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
1781 Warfarin 5mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
17965 Marevan 500microgram tablets (Mercury Pharma Group Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
23078 Warfarin 1mg Tablet (WB Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
30202 Warfarin wbp 1mg Tablet (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
30203 Warfarin wbp 3mg Tablet (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
31511 Warfarin 3mg Tablet (WB Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
31937 Warfarin 5mg tablets (Teva UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
33711 Warfarin 5mg Tablet (WB Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34019 Warfarin 1mg tablets (IVAX Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34086 Warfarin 3mg Tablet (Celltech Pharma Europe Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34087 Warfarin 1mg Tablet (Celltech Pharma Europe Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34088 Warfarin 5mg Tablet (Celltech Pharma Europe Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34095 Warfarin wbp 5mg Tablet (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34299 Warfarin 1mg tablets (Teva UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34416 Warfarin 1mg tablets (Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34417 Warfarin 3mg tablets (Teva UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34418 Warfarin 5mg tablets (Generics (UK) Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34517 Warfarin 1mg tablets (Generics (UK) Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34526 Warfarin 3mg tablets (Generics (UK) Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34576 Warfarin 1mg Tablet (Lagap) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34691 Warfarin 5mg Tablet (Regent Laboratories Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34758 Warfarin 3mg tablets (IVAX Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34864 Warfarin 5mg tablets (IVAX Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
34918 Warfarin 5mg tablets (Actavis UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
36099 Warfarin 1mg/5ml oral suspension CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
38041 Warfarin sodium 5mg/ml oral suspension CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
38044 Warfarin 5mg/5ml oral solution CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
39119 Rivaroxaban 10mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
39444 Dabigatran etexilate 110mg capsules CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
39503 Dabigatran etexilate 75mg capsules CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
39639 Xarelto 10mg tablets (Bayer Plc) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
39755 Pradaxa 110mg capsules (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
39866 Warfarin 1mg tablets (Almus Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
40143 Warfarin 500microgram tablets (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
42474 Pradaxa 75mg capsules (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
43407 Warfarin 3mg tablets (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
43408 Warfarin 1mg tablets (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
43409 Warfarin 5mg tablets (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
43655 Warfarin sodium oral solution CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
4446 Acenocoumarol 1mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
44866 Warfarin sodium 1mg/ml oral supension SF CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
45 Warfarin 1mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
46632 Dabigatran etexilate 150mg capsules CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
46678 Pradaxa 150mg capsules (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
46924 Phenindione 10mg tablets (Mercury Pharma Group Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
47207 Rivaroxaban 20mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
47353 Rivaroxaban 15mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
47566 Apixaban 2.5mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
47925 Xarelto 20mg tablets (Bayer Plc) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
47944 Warfarin 1mg tablets (Actavis UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
48070 Warfarin sodium tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
48134 Xarelto 15mg tablets (Bayer Plc) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
48869 Warfarin 1mg/ml oral suspension sugar free CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
50000 Warfarin 1mg/ml oral suspension sugar free (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
51484 Warfarin 1mg tablets (Bristol Laboratories Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
51496 Warfarin 1mg tablets (Phoenix Healthcare Distribution Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
51509 Warfarin 1mg tablets (APC Pharmaceuticals & Chemicals (Europe) Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
5305 Sinthrome 1mg tablets (Alliance Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
53740 Eliquis 2.5mg tablets (Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
53745 Warfarin 3mg tablets (Bristol Laboratories Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
53752 Warfarin 1mg tablets (Alliance Healthcare (Distribution) Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
54066 Apixaban 5mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
61 Warfarin 3mg tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
6262 Warfarin 500microgram tablets CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
833 Warfarin 3mg/5ml oral solution CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
8466 Marevan 1mg tablets (Mercury Pharma Group Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug
8467 Marevan 3mg tablets (Mercury Pharma Group Ltd) CPRD_product_code res9: anticoagulants drug

API

To Export Phenotype Details:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH495/version/990/detail/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH495/version/990/detail/?format=json
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get details of phenotype

details = get_phenotype_detail_by_version('PH495', '990', api_client=client)

To Export Phenotype Code List:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH495/version/990/export/codes/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH495/version/990/export/codes/?format=json
CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH495/version/990/export/codes/
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get codelists of phenotype

codelists = get_phenotype_code_list('PH495', '990', api_client=client)

Version History

Version
ID
Name Owner Publish date
990 Anticoagulants ieuan.scanlon 2021-10-06 currently shown

Export - export all codes into a csv file/JSON/XML for the current phenotype version.

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