Print

Sulfonylureas

Evangelos Kontopantelis, David A Springate, David Reeves, Darren M. Aschroff, Martin Rutter, Iain Buchan, Tim Doran, Matthias Pierce, Darren M. Ashcroft

Type
Drug
ID
PH566
Version ID
1132
Data Sources
Valid event data range
01/04/2006 - 31/03/2012
Sex
Female, Male
Agreement Date
2014-12-16
Coding system
GPRD product codes
Tags /Collections
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library

Definition

Data source:

We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), a large primary care database that holds complete electronic patient records (including diagnoses, prescriptions and referrals) from participating family practices across the UK. A hierarchical clinical coding system (Read) is used to record the data. In July 2012, data were available for 644 practices and 13,772,992 patients. Full details of the database have been provided elsewhere.

Diabetes cohort:

We extracted data from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2012 and, for ease of reporting and analysing, aggregated information into six financial years. Within each year, practice inclusion eligibility was determined by a CPRD assessment algorithm, which informs on practices considered to be of research standard; therefore, our cohort of practices varied over time. For each research standard practice and year, we defined as eligible patients those who were registered with the practice for the full year and were aged 18 years or over in that year. From these patients, using relevant Read codes for type 2 diabetes (e.g. C10F.00: Type 2 diabetes mellitus) and excluding those treated with insulin within 2 years of diagnosis, we identified 246,544 patients over the study period. Diagnoses were not constrained to the study period and a relevant code prior to the study as well as during the study period would flag a patient from the respective year onwards. Data on sex, age and removal from the database due to deaths were available and complete for all patients.We extracted data on diabetes-related macrovascular (myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease or amputation) and microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy [chronic kidney disease stages 4–5] or foot ulcer) complications as well as comorbidities (asthma, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease [excluded from microvascular analysis], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, dementia, severe mental illness, heart failure, hypertension, stroke [excluded from macrovascular analysis], cancer, epilepsy, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and hypothyroidism). Although we aimed to include all conditions associated with diabetes, the choice was partially determined by the domains incentivised under the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), for which accuracy of diagnosis is considered high. Information was also extracted on smoking (never smoked, current, exsmoker and missing data),BMI, HbA1c levels (%), cholesterol levels (mmol/l) and systolic/diastolic BP (mmHg). Biometric measurement data were cleaned and we calculated patient means for each year when more than one relevant record was available. Using product lists we determined prescription prevalence (at least one) for relevant medications: ACE inhibitors, acarbose, α-blockers, anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide- 1 agonists, statins and other lipid-lowering drugs, meglitinides , metformin, sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones. For approximately 60% of the practices, records were linked to Office of National Statistics (ONS) mortality data and we had access to death dates for all their patients. For these, using ICD-10 codes (www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/) we were able to estimate deathslinked to specific causes (underlying or in the top three): diabetes (E10–E16), ischaemic heart disease (I21–I22), stroke (I60–I64) or stroke excluding bleeds (excluding I63).

Publications

  • Evangelos Kontopantelis, David A Springate, David Reeves, Darren M. Aschroff, Martin Rutter, Iain Buchan, Tim Doran, Glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol levels and their relationships to clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Diabetologia, 58:505-518, 2015.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 67
Code Description Coding System (CPRD_product_code) Entity type Category
11284 AMARYL tablets 4mg [AVENTIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
11695 DIAMICRON MR tablets 30mg [SERVIER] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
12455 RASTINON tablets 500mg [HOECHSTMAR] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
12513 GLIBENESE tablets 5mg [PFIZER] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
1254 glibenclamide tablets 5mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
13331 EUGLUCON tablets 5mg [AVENTIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
15374 gliclazide oral suspension 40mg/5ml CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
16602 CALABREN tablets 2.5mg [BERK] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
17343 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [HILLCROSS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
17698 MINODIAB tablets 5mg [PHARMACIA] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
17706 MINODIAB tablets 2.5mg [PHARMACIA] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
1964 DIAMICRON tablets 80mg [SERVIER] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
1965 tolbutamide tablets 500mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
21424 glibenclamide oral suspension 5mg/5ml CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
21564 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [WOCKHARDT] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
21832 DIABETAMIDE tablets 5mg [ASHBOURNE] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
21892 DIAGLYK tablets 80mg [ASHBOURNE] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
2219 glibenclamide tablets 2.5mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
25636 LIBANIL tablets 2.5mg [APS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
26218 CALABREN tablets 5mg [BERK] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
28708 MALIX tablets 2.5mg [LAGAP] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
29326 GLIPIZIDE tablets 5mg [GEN (UK)] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
29939 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [GEN (UK)] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
30460 MALIX tablets 5mg [LAGAP] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
31212 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [ACTAVIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
31474 LIBANIL tablets 5mg [APS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
32 gliclazide tablets 80mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
33562 DUCLAZIDE tablets 80mg [DUMEX] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
33673 TOLBUTAMIDE tablets 500mg [ACTAVIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
34399 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [IVAX] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
34507 GLIBENCLAMIDE tablets 2.5mg [WOCKHARDT] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
34563 GLIBENCLAMIDE tablets 5mg [WOCKHARDT] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
34676 GLIBENCLAMIDE tablets 2.5mg [HILLCROSS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
34706 GLIBENCLAMIDE tablets 2.5mg [IVAX] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
34802 GLIPIZIDE tablets 5mg [IVAX] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
34932 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [GENUS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
34957 TOLBUTAMIDE tablets 500mg [HILLCROSS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
36856 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [SANDOZ] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
40365 GLIMEPIRIDE tablets 1mg [ACTAVIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
40425 NAZDOL MR tablets 30mg [TEVA] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
41558 GLIBENCLAMIDE tablets 5mg [TEVA] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
41559 GLIBENCLAMIDE tablets 5mg [HILLCROSS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
41593 GLIBENCLAMIDE tablets 2.5mg [TEVA] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
42790 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [MERCK-GEN] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
43065 gliclazide tablets 40mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
43465 ZICRON tablets 40mg [BRISTOL LB] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
44304 GLYCONON tablets 500mg [DDSA] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
44473 EDICIL MR tablets 30mg [RATIOPHARM] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
44738 NIDDARYL tablets 1mg [DEE] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
45215 GLICLAZIDE tablets 80mg [NEOLAB] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
45831 DACADIS modified release tablet 30mg [GEN (UK)] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
46927 TOLBUTAMIDE tablets 500mg [TEVA] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
47074 gliclazide oral suspension 80mg/5ml CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
4862 DIABETAMIDE tablets 2.5mg [ASHBOURNE] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
5276 glimepiride tablets 1mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
5316 glimepiride tablets 4mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
5353 glimepiride tablets 2mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
547 glipizide tablets 2.5mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
5627 gliclazide modified release tablet 30mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
5636 glipizide tablets 5mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
6337 glimepiride tablets 3mg CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
7284 AMARYL tablets 2mg [AVENTIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
7332 AMARYL tablets 1mg [AVENTIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
7409 AMARYL tablets 3mg [AVENTIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
7744 DAONIL tablets 5mg [AVENTIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
7912 SEMI-DAONIL tablets 2.5mg [AVENTIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug
8976 EUGLUCON tablets 2.5mg [AVENTIS] CPRD_product_code res9: sulfonylureas drug

API

To Export Phenotype Details:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH566/version/1132/detail/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH566/version/1132/detail/?format=json
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get details of phenotype

details = get_phenotype_detail_by_version('PH566', '1132', api_client=client)

To Export Phenotype Code List:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH566/version/1132/export/codes/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH566/version/1132/export/codes/?format=json
CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH566/version/1132/export/codes/
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get codelists of phenotype

codelists = get_phenotype_code_list('PH566', '1132', api_client=client)

Version History

Version
ID
Name Owner Publish date
1132 Sulfonylureas ieuan.scanlon 2021-10-06 currently shown

Export - export all codes into a csv file/JSON/XML for the current phenotype version.

Print - Print page.