Renal Cancer

David A Springate, Darren M Aschroft, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Tim Doran, Ronan Ryan, David Reeves

Version ID
Disease or Syndrome
Data Sources
Doctors Independent Network , CPRD GOLD
Valid event data range
01/01/19997 - 31/12/2006
♀  Female ♂  Male
Agreement Date
Coding system
Read codes v2
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library
No tags



To conduct a fully independent, external validation of a research study based on one electronic health record database using a different database sampling from the same population.


Retrospective cohort analysis of β-blocker therapy and all-cause mortality in patients with cancer.


Two UK national primary care databases (PCDs): the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Doctors’ Independent Network (DIN).


CPRD data for 11 302 patients with cancer compared with published results from DIN for 3462 patients; study period January 1997 to December 2006.

Primary and secondary outcome measures:

All-cause mortality: overall; by treatment subgroup (β-blockers only, β-blockers plus other blood pressure lowering medicines (BPLM), other BPLMs only); and by cancer site.


Using CPRD, β-blocker use was not associated with mortality (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.14, vs patients prescribed other BPLMs only), but DIN β-blocker users had significantly higher mortality (HR=1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33). However, these HRs were not statistically different (p=0.063), but did differ for patients on β-blockers alone (CPRD=0.94, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.07; DIN=1.37, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.61; p<0.001). Results for individual cancer sites differed by study, but only significantly for prostate and pancreas cancers. Results were robust under sensitivity analyses, but we could not be certain that mortality was identically defined in both databases.


We found a complex pattern of similarities and differences between databases. Overall treatment effect estimates were not statistically different, adding to a growing body of evidence that different UK PCDs produce comparable effect estimates. However, individually the two studies lead to different conclusions regarding the safety of β-blockers and some subgroup effects differed significantly. Single studies using even internally wellvalidated databases do not guarantee generalisable results, especially for subgroups, and confirmatory studies using at least one other independent data source are strongly recommended.


  • David A Springate, Darrent M Aschroft, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Tim Doran, Ronan Ryan, David Reeves, Can analyses of electronic patient records be independently and externally validated? Study 2—the effect of β-adrenoceptor blocker therapy on cancer survival a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open, 5(e007299), 2014.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 6
Code Description Entity type Category Coding System (Read)
B4A0.00 Malig neop kidney parenchyma res24: renal cancer diagnostic Read
B4A0000 Hypernephroma res24: renal cancer diagnostic Read
B4A1.00 Malig neop renal pelvis res24: renal cancer diagnostic Read
B4A1000 Malig neop renal calyces res24: renal cancer diagnostic Read
B4A1100 Malig neop ureteropelvic junct res24: renal cancer diagnostic Read
B4A1z00 Malig neop renal pelvis NOS res24: renal cancer diagnostic Read


To Export Phenotype Details:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH654/version/1308/detail/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH654/version/1308/detail/?format=json
R Package

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# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)

# Get details of phenotype

details = get_phenotype_detail_by_version('PH654', '1308', api_client=client)

To Export Phenotype Code List:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH654/version/1308/export/codes/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH654/version/1308/export/codes/?format=json
CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH654/version/1308/export/codes/
R Package

# Download here


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)

# Get codelists of phenotype

codelists = get_phenotype_code_list('PH654', '1308', api_client=client)

Version History

Name Owner Publish date
1308 Renal Cancer ieuan.scanlon 2021-10-06 currently shown

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