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Metformin

Victor W Zhong, Juhaeri Juhaeri, Stephen R Cole, Christian M Shay, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis

Type
Drug
ID
PH738
Version ID
1476
Data Sources
Valid event data range
01/04/1997 - 31/03/2014
Sex
Female, Male
Agreement Date
2017-10-23
Coding system
GPRD product codes
Tags /Collections
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library

Definition

Aims:

To determine association between HbA1C variability and hypoglycemia requiring hospitalization (HH) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods:

Using nested case-control design in electronic health record data in England, one case with first or recurrent HH was matched to one control who had not experienced HH in incident T1D and T2D adults. HbA1C variability was determined by standard deviation of ≥3 HbA1C results. Conditional logistic models were applied to determine association of HbA1C variability with first and recurrent HH.

Results:

In T1D, every 1.0% increase in HbA1C variability was associated with 90% higher first HH risk (95% CI, 1.25–2.89) and 392% higher recurrent HH risk (95% CI, 1.17–20.61). In T2D, a 1.0% increase in HbA1C variability was associated with 556% higher first HH risk (95% CI, 3.88–11.08) and 573% higher recurrent HH risk (95% CI,1.59–28.51). In T2D for first HH, the association was the strongest in non-insulin non-sulfonylurea users (P b 0.0001); for recurrent HH, the association was stronger in insulin users than sulfonylurea users (P = 0.07). The HbA1C variability-HH association was stronger in more recent years in T2D (P ≤ 0.004).

Conclusions:

HbA1C variability is a strong predictor for HH in T1D and T2D.

Publications

  • Victor W Zhong, Juhaeri Juhaeri, Stephen R Cole, Christian M Shay, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, HbA1C variability and hypoglycemia hospitalization in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A nested case-control study. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 32(2), 2017.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 100
Code Description Coding System (CPRD_product_code) Entity type Category
11601 Rosiglitazone 2mg / Metformin 500mg tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
11604 Rosiglitazone 1mg / Metformin 500mg tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
11609 Metformin with rosiglitazone 500mg + 1mg Tablet CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
11610 Metformin with rosiglitazone 500mg + 2mg Tablet CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
11717 Rosiglitazone 2mg / Metformin 1g tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
11737 Metformin with rosiglitazone 1000mg + 4mg Tablet CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
11760 Metformin with rosiglitazone 1000mg + 2mg Tablet CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
11990 Metformin 500mg/5ml oral solution sugar free CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
14164 Avandamet 2mg/1000mg tablets (GlaxoSmithKline UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
16044 Glucophage SR 500mg tablets (Merck Serono Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
17580 Avandamet 1mg/500mg tablets (GlaxoSmithKline UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
18220 Pioglitazone 15mg / Metformin 850mg tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
23 Metformin 500mg tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
25678 Glucamet 500mg Tablet (Opus Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
26258 Glucamet 850mg Tablet (Opus Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
27501 Orabet 500mg Tablet (Lagap) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
30316 Metformin with pioglitazone 850mg + 15mg Tablet CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
31077 Competact 15mg/850mg tablets (Takeda UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
31146 Metsol 500mg/5ml oral solution (Kappin Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
33087 Metformin 500mg tablets (Actavis UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
33674 Metformin 850mg tablets (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34004 Metformin 500mg tablets (IVAX Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34020 Metformin 850mg tablets (IVAX Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34135 Metformin 500mg Tablet (M & A Pharmachem Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34323 Metformin 500mg tablets (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34504 Metformin 500mg tablets (Wockhardt UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34598 Metformin 500mg tablets (Generics (UK) Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34697 Metformin 850mg tablets (Wockhardt UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34742 Metformin 850mg tablets (Teva UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34836 Metformin 850mg tablets (Actavis UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
34917 Metformin 500mg tablets (Teva UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
37874 Vildagliptin 50mg / Metformin 850mg tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
37902 Vildagliptin 50mg / Metformin 1g tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
38355 Metformin 750mg modified-release tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
38400 Glucophage SR 750mg tablets (Merck Serono Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
38551 Eucreas 50mg/1000mg tablets (Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
39203 Eucreas 50mg/850mg tablets (Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
39560 Bolamyn SR 500mg tablets (Teva UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
39598 Metformin 1g modified-release tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
39729 Glucophage SR 1000mg tablets (Merck Serono Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
39988 Metformin 500mg oral powder sachets sugar free CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
40007 Glucophage 1000mg oral powder sachets (Merck Serono Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
40110 Glucophage 500mg oral powder sachets (Merck Serono Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
40233 Metformin 1g oral powder sachets sugar free CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
42161 Orabet 500mg Tablet (Sandoz Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
43270 Metformin 500mg/5ml oral solution sugar free (Rosemont Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
43619 Metformin 1g / Sitagliptin 50mg tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
43684 Janumet 50mg/1000mg tablets (Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
44250 Metformin 500mg/5ml Oral solution (Hillcross Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
45581 Metabet SR 500mg tablets (Morningside Healthcare Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
46989 Metabet SR 1000mg tablets (Morningside Healthcare Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
47939 Glucient SR 500mg tablets (Consilient Health Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
48149 Metformin 500mg tablets (Almus Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
49502 Glucophage SR 500mg tablets (Mawdsley-Brooks & Company Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
49738 Metformin 1g modified-release tablets (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
50570 Glucophage SR 500mg tablets (Lexon (UK) Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
50682 Jentadueto 2.5mg/1000mg tablets (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
50821 Metformin 850mg tablets (Pfizer Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
50970 Metformin 500mg tablets (Bristol Laboratories Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
51080 Metabet SR 1000mg tablets (Actavis UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
51135 Metformin 500mg modified-release tablets (A A H Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
51527 Metformin 500mg tablets (Boston Healthcare Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
52221 Diagemet XL 500mg tablets (Thornton & Ross Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
52442 Metformin 500mg tablets (Pfizer Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
52445 Linagliptin 2.5mg / Metformin 1g tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
52449 Linagliptin 2.5mg / Metformin 850mg tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
52634 Glucophage SR 500mg tablets (DE Pharmaceuticals) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
53478 Metformin 500mg modified-release tablets (Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
53774 Metabet SR 500mg tablets (Actavis UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
53867 Metformin 500mg tablets (Zentiva) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
54150 Jentadueto 2.5mg/850mg tablets (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
54442 Metformin (roi) 1000mg Tablet CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
54891 Saxagliptin 2.5mg / Metformin 1g tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
54898 Metformin 850mg tablets (Almus Pharmaceuticals Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
55270 Duformin 500mg Tablet (Dumex Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
55711 Metformin 500mg tablets (Alliance Healthcare (Distribution) Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
55739 Metformin 500mg tablets (Tillomed Laboratories Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
56965 Komboglyze 2.5mg/1000mg tablets (AstraZeneca UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
57147 Bolamyn SR 1000mg tablets (Teva UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
57457 Metformin 500mg tablets (Aurobindo Pharma Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
58051 Metformin 500mg/5ml oral solution CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
58607 Metformin 500mg/5ml oral solution sugar free (Zentiva) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
59620 Glucophage SR 500mg tablets (Waymade Healthcare Plc) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
60012 Dapagliflozin 5mg / Metformin 1g tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
60074 Metformin 1g modified-release tablets (Waymade Healthcare Plc) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
60286 Metformin 500mg/5ml oral suspension CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
60643 Xigduo 5mg/1000mg tablets (AstraZeneca UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
60968 Metformin 500mg modified-release tablets (Actavis UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
61043 Sukkarto SR 1000mg tablets (Morningside Healthcare Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
61559 Sukkarto SR 500mg tablets (Morningside Healthcare Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
62144 Metformin 500mg modified-release tablets (DE Pharmaceuticals) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
62265 Metformin 500mg modified-release tablets (Mawdsley-Brooks & Company Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
6855 Avandamet 2mg/500mg tablets (GlaxoSmithKline UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
7048 Metformin 500mg modified-release tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
7166 Glucophage 500mg tablets (Merck Serono Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
7325 Avandamet 4mg/1000mg tablets (GlaxoSmithKline UK Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
735 Metformin 100mg/ml Oral solution CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
7375 Rosiglitazone 4mg / Metformin 1g tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
7610 Glucophage 850mg tablets (Merck Serono Ltd) CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug
93 Metformin 850mg tablets CPRD_product_code res50: metformin drug

API

To Export Phenotype Details:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH738/version/1476/detail/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH738/version/1476/detail/?format=json
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get details of phenotype

details = get_phenotype_detail_by_version('PH738', '1476', api_client=client)

To Export Phenotype Code List:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH738/version/1476/export/codes/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH738/version/1476/export/codes/?format=json
CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH738/version/1476/export/codes/
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get codelists of phenotype

codelists = get_phenotype_code_list('PH738', '1476', api_client=client)

Version History

Version
ID
Name Owner Publish date
1476 Metformin ieuan.scanlon 2021-10-06 currently shown

Export - export all codes into a csv file/JSON/XML for the current phenotype version.

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