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Depression

Kathryn M Abel, Holly Hope, Eleanor Swift, Rosa Parisi, Darren M Ashcroft, Kyriaki Kosidov, Semre Su Osam, Christian Dolman, Mathias Pierce

Type
Disease or Syndrome
ID
PH823
Version ID
1725
Data Sources
Valid event data range
01/01/2005 - 31/12/2017
Sex
Female
Agreement Date
2019-06-30
Coding system
Read codes v2
Tags /Collections
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library

Definition

Background:

Little information exists about the prevalence of children exposed to maternal mental illness. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of children and adolescents exposed to maternal mental illness in the UK between 2005 and 2017 using primary care data.

Methods:

In this national retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 0–16 years born between Jan 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 2015, who were linked to their mothers and registered on the primary care Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) between 2005 and 2017. We extracted data on diagnosis, symptoms, and therapy from the CRPD to define the following maternal mental illnesses: depression, anxiety, non-affective psychosis, affective psychosis, eating disorders, personality disorders, alcohol misuse disorder, and substance misuse disorder. We also extracted data on socioeconomic status from the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010 and data on ethnicity from the Hospital Episode Statistics dataset. The main outcome was prevalence of maternal mental illness. Prevalence was calculated for each 2-year period of childhood (from age 0–<2 to 14–<16 years) using marginal predictions from a logistic regression model. We used survival analysis to estimate the incidence and cumulative risk of children experiencing maternal mental illness by age 16 years.

Findings:

We identified 783 710 children registered in the UK CPRD mother-baby link database, and included 547 747 children (381 685 mothers) in our analysis. Overall prevalence of maternal mental illness was 23·2% (95% CI 23·1–23·4), which increased during childhood (21·9%, 21·7–22·1 among the 0–<2 year age group vs 27·3%, 26·8–27·8 among the 14–<16 year age group). Depression and anxiety were the most prevalent maternal mental illnesses. The proportion of children exposed to maternal mental illness increased from 22·2% (21·9–22·4) between 2005 and 2007 to 25·1% (24·8–25·5) between 2015 and 2017. Geographically, the highest prevalence of maternal mental illness was observed in Northern Ireland (29·8%, 29·0–30·5). In England, prevalence of maternal mental illness was highest among children in the most deprived areas (28·3%, 27·8–28·8). The incidence of maternal mental illness was highest between 0–3 months (26·7 per 100 person years, 26·4–27·1). By age 16 years, the cumulative risk of maternal mental illness was 53·1% (52·8–53·3).

Interpretation:

One in four children aged 0–16 years are exposed to maternal mental illness and the prevalence of diagnosed and treated maternal mental illness is increasing. Policy makers and commissioners should consider this information and channel resources to target individuals in greatest need.

Publications

  • Kathryn M Abel, Holly Hope, Eleanor Swift, Rosa Parisi, Darren M Ashcroft, Kyriaki Kosidov, Samre Su Osam, Christian Dolman, Mathias Pierce, Prevalence of maternal mental illness among children and adolescents in the UK between 2005 and 2017: a national retrospective cohort analysis. Lancet Public Health, 4, e291–300, 2019.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 131
Code Description Entity type Category Coding System (Read)
1465.00 H/O: depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
1B17.00 Depressed res76: Depression symptom Read
1B17.11 C/O - feeling depressed res76: Depression symptom Read
1B17.12 C/O - feeling unhappy res76: Depression symptom Read
1B1I111 C/O weepiness res76: Depression symptom Read
1B1U.00 Symptoms of depression res76: Depression symptom Read
1B1U.11 Depressive symptoms res76: Depression symptom Read
1BO..00 Mood swings res76: Depression symptom Read
1BQ..00 Loss of capacity for enjoyment res76: Depression symptom Read
1BT..00 Depressed mood res76: Depression symptom Read
1BT..11 Low mood res76: Depression symptom Read
1BU..00 Loss of hope for the future res76: Depression symptom Read
1JJ..00 Suspected depression res76: Depression symptom Read
212S.00 Depression resolved res76: Depression diagnostic Read
2257.00 O/E - depressed res76: Depression symptom Read
62T1.00 Puerperal depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
8BK0.00 Depression management programme res76: Depression diagnostic Read
8HHq.00 Referral for guided self-help for depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
9H90.00 Depression annual review res76: Depression diagnostic Read
9H91.00 Depression medication review res76: Depression diagnostic Read
9H92.00 Depression interim review res76: Depression diagnostic Read
9HA0.00 On depression register res76: Depression diagnostic Read
9HA1.00 Removed from depression register res76: Depression diagnostic Read
9kQ..00 On full dose long term treatment depression - enh serv admin res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E03y300 Unspecified puerperal psychosis res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E11..12 Depressive psychoses res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112.00 Single major depressive episode res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112.11 Agitated depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112.12 Endogenous depression first episode res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112.13 Endogenous depression first episode res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112.14 Endogenous depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112000 Single major depressive episode, unspecified res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112100 Single major depressive episode, mild res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112200 Single major depressive episode, moderate res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112300 Single major depressive episode, severe, without psychosis res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112500 Single major depressive episode, partial or unspec remission res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112600 Single major depressive episode, in full remission res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E112z00 Single major depressive episode NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113.00 Recurrent major depressive episode res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113.11 Endogenous depression - recurrent res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113000 Recurrent major depressive episodes, unspecified res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113100 Recurrent major depressive episodes, mild res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113200 Recurrent major depressive episodes, moderate res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113300 Recurrent major depressive episodes, severe, no psychosis res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113500 Recurrent major depressive episodes,partial/unspec remission res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113600 Recurrent major depressive episodes, in full remission res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113700 Recurrent depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E113z00 Recurrent major depressive episode NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E118.00 Seasonal affective disorder res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E11y200 Atypical depressive disorder res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E11z100 Rebound mood swings res76: Depression symptom Read
E11z200 Masked depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E135.00 Agitated depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E204.00 Neurotic depression reactive type res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E204.11 Postnatal depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E211200 Depressive personality disorder res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E290.00 Brief depressive reaction res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E290z00 Brief depressive reaction NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E291.00 Prolonged depressive reaction res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E2B..00 Depressive disorder NEC res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E2B0.00 Postviral depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
E2B1.00 Chronic depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu15500 [X]Mental/behav dis oth stims inc caffeine: psychotic dis res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu3..00 [X]Mood - affective disorders res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32.00 [X]Depressive episode res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32.11 [X]Single episode of depressive reaction res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32.12 [X]Single episode of psychogenic depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32.13 [X]Single episode of reactive depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32000 [X]Mild depressive episode res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32100 [X]Moderate depressive episode res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32200 [X]Severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32211 [X]Single episode agitated depressn w'out psychotic symptoms res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32212 [X]Single episode major depression w'out psychotic symptoms res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32213 [X]Single episode vital depression w'out psychotic symptoms res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32400 [X]Mild depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32500 [X]Major depression, mild res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32600 [X]Major depression, moderately severe res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32700 [X]Major depression, severe without psychotic symptoms res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32B00 [X]Antenatal depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32y00 [X]Other depressive episodes res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32y11 [X]Atypical depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32y12 [X]Single episode of masked depression NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32z00 [X]Depressive episode, unspecified res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32z11 [X]Depression NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32z12 [X]Depressive disorder NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32z13 [X]Prolonged single episode of reactive depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu32z14 [X] Reactive depression NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33.00 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33.11 [X]Recurrent episodes of depressive reaction res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33.12 [X]Recurrent episodes of psychogenic depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33.13 [X]Recurrent episodes of reactive depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33.14 [X]Seasonal depressive disorder res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33.15 [X]SAD - Seasonal affective disorder res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33000 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder, current episode mild res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33100 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder, current episode moderate res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33200 [X]Recurr depress disorder cur epi severe without psyc sympt res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33211 [X]Endogenous depression without psychotic symptoms res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33212 [X]Major depression, recurrent without psychotic symptoms res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33214 [X]Vital depression, recurrent without psychotic symptoms res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33400 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder, currently in remission res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33y00 [X]Other recurrent depressive disorders res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33z00 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder, unspecified res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu33z11 [X]Monopolar depression NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34.00 [X]Persistent mood affective disorders res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34000 [X]Cyclothymia res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34012 [X]Cycloid personality res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34100 [X]Dysthymia res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34111 [X]Depressive neurosis res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34113 [X]Neurotic depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34114 [X]Persistant anxiety depression res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34y00 [X]Other persistent mood affective disorders res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu34z00 [X]Persistent mood affective disorder, unspecified res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu3y.00 [X]Other mood affective disorders res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu3y000 [X]Other single mood affective disorders res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu3y011 [X]Mixed affective episode res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu3y100 [X]Other recurrent mood affective disorders res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu3y111 [X]Recurrent brief depressive episodes res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu3yy00 [X]Other specified mood affective disorders res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu3z.00 [X]Unspecified mood affective disorder res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu53.00 [X]Mental and behav disorders assoc with the puerperium NEC res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu53000 [X]Mild mental/behav disorder assoc with the puerperium NEC res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu53011 [X]Postnatal depression NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu53012 [X]Postpartum depression NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu53100 [X]Severe mental and behav disorder assoc wth puerperium NEC res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu53111 [X]Puerperal psychosis NOS res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu53z00 [X]Puerperal mental disorder, unspecified res76: Depression diagnostic Read
Eu92000 [X]Depressive conduct disorder res76: Depression diagnostic Read
L184.00 Mental disorders in pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium res76: Depression diagnostic Read
L184200 Mental disorder in the puerperium - baby delivered res76: Depression diagnostic Read
L184300 Mental disorder during pregnancy - baby not yet delivered res76: Depression diagnostic Read
L184400 Mental disorder in puerperium - baby previously delivered res76: Depression diagnostic Read

API

To Export Phenotype Details:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH823/version/1725/detail/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH823/version/1725/detail/?format=json
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get details of phenotype

details = get_phenotype_detail_by_version('PH823', '1725', api_client=client)

To Export Phenotype Code List:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH823/version/1725/export/codes/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH823/version/1725/export/codes/?format=json
CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH823/version/1725/export/codes/
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get codelists of phenotype

codelists = get_phenotype_code_list('PH823', '1725', api_client=client)

Version History

Version
ID
Name Owner Publish date
1725 Depression ieuan.scanlon 2022-04-04 currently shown

Export - export all codes into a csv file/JSON/XML for the current phenotype version.

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