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Depression

Matthew J Carr, Sarah Steeg, Roger T Webb, Nav Kapur, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Kathryn M Abel, Holly Hope, Matthias Pierce, Darren M. Ashcroft

Type
Disease or Syndrome
ID
PH831
Version ID
1741
Data Sources
Valid event data range
01/01/2010 - 30/06/2020
Sex
Female, Male
Agreement Date
2020-10-08
Coding system
Read codes v2
Tags /Collections
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library

Definition

Background:

The Covid-19 pandemic has adversely affected population mental health.

Methods:

Using electronic health records from 1714 UK general practices registered with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink we examined incidence and event rates of depression and anxiety disorders, self-harm, prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines and GP referrals to mental health services per 100,000 person-months, before, during and after the peak of the Covid-19 emergency. Analyses were stratified by gender, age group and practice-level Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile.

Findings:

In April 2020, primary care-recorded incident depression reduced by 43·6% (95% CI 39·0% to 47·9%), anxiety disorders by 48·2% (CI 44·6% to 51·5%) and antidepressant prescribing by 36·2% (CI 33·7% to 38·6%) compared to expected rates based on prior trends. Reductions in first diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders were particularly stark for working-age adults and patients registered at practices in more deprived areas. Self-harm incidence was 38·5% (CI 35·7% to 41·3%) lower than expected in April 2020. Total self-harm contacts fell by 28·2% (CI 25·5% to 30·8%). Rates of both incident and any self-harm remained around thirty percent lower than expected up to June 2020.

Interpretation:

Our findings reveal a stark treatment gap that was greater for first diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders in working age adults, for practice populations in deprived areas, and for self-harm. Consequences could include more patients subsequently presenting with greater acuity and severity of mental illness and rising rates of non-fatal self-harm and suicide.

Publications

  • Matthew J Carr, Sarah Steeg, Roger T Webb, Nav Kapur, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Kathryn M Abel, Holly Hope, Matthias Pierce, Darren M. Ashcroft, Primary care contact for mental illness and self-harm before during and after the peak of the Covid-19 pandemic in the UK cohort study of 13 million individual. PrePrint not peer reviewed, 2020.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 135
Code Description Entity type Category Coding System (Read)
1B17.00 Depressed res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
212S.00 Depression resolved res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
2257.00 O/E - depressed res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
62T1.00 Puerperal depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
6659000 Antidepressant drug treatment started res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
6G00.00 Postnatal depression counselling res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
8BK0.00 Depression management programme res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
8CAa.00 Patient given advice about management of depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
8HHq.00 Referral for guided self-help for depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
8HHq000 Referral for depression self-help video res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
8IH5200 Referral for guided self-help for depression declined res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9H90.00 Depression annual review res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9H91.00 Depression medication review res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9H92.00 Depression interim review res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9HA0.00 On depression register res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9Ov..00 Depression monitoring administration res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9Ov0.00 Depression monitoring first letter res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9Ov1.00 Depression monitoring second letter res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9Ov2.00 Depression monitoring third letter res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9Ov3.00 Depression monitoring verbal invite res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9Ov4.00 Depression monitoring telephone invite res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9hC..00 Exception reporting: depression quality indicators res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9hC0.00 Excepted from depression quality indicators: Patient unsuita res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9hC1.00 Excepted from depression quality indicators: Informed dissen res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9k4..00 Depression - enhanced services administration res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9k40.00 Depression - enhanced service completed res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9kQ..00 On full dose long term treatment depression - enh serv admin res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
9kQ..11 On full dose long term treatment for depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E11..12 Depressive psychoses res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112.00 Single major depressive episode res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112.11 Agitated depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112.12 Endogenous depression first episode res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112.13 Endogenous depression first episode res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112.14 Endogenous depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112000 Single major depressive episode, unspecified res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112100 Single major depressive episode, mild res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112200 Single major depressive episode, moderate res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112300 Single major depressive episode, severe, without psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112400 Single major depressive episode, severe, with psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112500 Single major depressive episode, partial or unspec remission res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112600 Single major depressive episode, in full remission res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E112z00 Single major depressive episode NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113.00 Recurrent major depressive episode res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113.11 Endogenous depression - recurrent res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113000 Recurrent major depressive episodes, unspecified res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113100 Recurrent major depressive episodes, mild res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113200 Recurrent major depressive episodes, moderate res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113300 Recurrent major depressive episodes, severe, no psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113400 Recurrent major depressive episodes, severe, with psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113500 Recurrent major depressive episodes,partial/unspec remission res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113600 Recurrent major depressive episodes, in full remission res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113700 Recurrent depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E113z00 Recurrent major depressive episode NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E118.00 Seasonal affective disorder res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E11y200 Atypical depressive disorder res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E11z200 Masked depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E130.00 Reactive depressive psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E130.11 Psychotic reactive depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E135.00 Agitated depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E200300 Anxiety with depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E204.00 Neurotic depression reactive type res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E204.11 Postnatal depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E204.99 Reactive (neurotic) depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E290z00 Brief depressive reaction NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E2B..00 Depressive disorder NEC res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E2B..98 Depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E2B..99 Depression NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
E2B1.00 Chronic depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu05300 [X]Organic mood [affective] disorders res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu20400 [X]Post-schizophrenic depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu3..00 [X]Mood - affective disorders res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32.00 [X]Depressive episode res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32.11 [X]Single episode of depressive reaction res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32.12 [X]Single episode of psychogenic depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32.13 [X]Single episode of reactive depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32000 [X]Mild depressive episode res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32099 Mild depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32100 [X]Moderate depressive episode res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32199 Moderate depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32200 [X]Severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32211 [X]Single episode agitated depressn w'out psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32212 [X]Single episode major depression w'out psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32213 [X]Single episode vital depression w'out psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32299 Severe depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32300 [X]Severe depressive episode with psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32311 [X]Single episode of major depression and psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32312 [X]Single episode of psychogenic depressive psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32313 [X]Single episode of psychotic depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32314 [X]Single episode of reactive depressive psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32400 [X]Mild depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32500 [X]Major depression, mild res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32600 [X]Major depression, moderately severe res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32700 [X]Major depression, severe without psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32800 [X]Major depression, severe with psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32900 Single major depressive episode, severe, with psychosis, psychosis in remission res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32A00 Recurrent major depressive episodes, severe, with psychosis, psychosis in remission res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32B00 [X]Antenatal depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32y00 [X]Other depressive episodes res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32y11 [X]Atypical depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32y12 [X]Single episode of masked depression NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32z00 [X]Depressive episode, unspecified res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32z11 [X]Depression NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32z12 [X]Depressive disorder NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32z13 [X]Prolonged single episode of reactive depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu32z14 [X] Reactive depression NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33.00 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33.11 [X]Recurrent episodes of depressive reaction res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33.12 [X]Recurrent episodes of psychogenic depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33.13 [X]Recurrent episodes of reactive depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33.14 [X]Seasonal depressive disorder res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33000 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder, current episode mild res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33100 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder, current episode moderate res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33200 [X]Recurr depress disorder cur epi severe without psyc sympt res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33211 [X]Endogenous depression without psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33212 [X]Major depression, recurrent without psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33214 [X]Vital depression, recurrent without psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33300 [X]Recurrent depress disorder cur epi severe with psyc symp res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33311 [X]Endogenous depression with psychotic symptoms res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33313 [X]Recurr severe episodes/major depression+psychotic symptom res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33314 [X]Recurr severe episodes/psychogenic depressive psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33315 [X]Recurrent severe episodes of psychotic depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33316 [X]Recurrent severe episodes/reactive depressive psychosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33400 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder, currently in remission res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33y00 [X]Other recurrent depressive disorders res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33z00 [X]Recurrent depressive disorder, unspecified res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu33z11 [X]Monopolar depression NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu34111 [X]Depressive neurosis res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu34113 [X]Neurotic depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu34114 [X]Persistant anxiety depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu3y111 [X]Recurrent brief depressive episodes res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu41200 [X]Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu41211 [X]Mild anxiety depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu53011 [X]Postnatal depression NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
Eu53012 [X]Postpartum depression NOS res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read
R007z13 [D]Postoperative depression res173: Depression (Read codes) diagnostic Read

API

To Export Phenotype Details:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH831/version/1741/detail/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH831/version/1741/detail/?format=json
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get details of phenotype

details = get_phenotype_detail_by_version('PH831', '1741', api_client=client)

To Export Phenotype Code List:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH831/version/1741/export/codes/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH831/version/1741/export/codes/?format=json
CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH831/version/1741/export/codes/
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get codelists of phenotype

codelists = get_phenotype_code_list('PH831', '1741', api_client=client)

Version History

Version
ID
Name Owner Publish date
1741 Depression ieuan.scanlon 2022-04-04 currently shown

Export - export all codes into a csv file/JSON/XML for the current phenotype version.

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