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Ethnicity

Alison K Wright, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Richard Emsley, Ian Buchan, Mamas A Mamas, Naveed Sattar, Darren M Ashcroft, Martin M Rutter

Type
Lifestyle Risk Factor
ID
PH922
Version ID
1923
Data Sources
Valid event data range
01/01/2006 - 31/12/2013
Sex
Female, Male
Agreement Date
2019-06-11
Coding system
Read codes v2
Tags /Collections
ClinicalCodes Repository Phenotype Library

Definition

BACKGROUND:

With recent changes in the United Kingdom’s clinical practice for diabetes mellitus care, contemporary estimates of sex disparities in cardiovascular risk and risk factor management are needed.

METHODS:

In this retrospective cohort study, using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to hospital and death records for people in England, we identified 79 985 patients with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between 2006 to 2013 matched to 386 547 patients without diabetes mellitus. Sex-stratified Cox models were used to assess cardiovascular risk.

RESULTS:

Compared with women without T2DM, women with T2DM had a higher cardiovascular event risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% confidence interval, 1.12–1.28]) with similar corresponding data in men (hazard ratio, 1.12 [1.06–1.19]), leading to a nonsignificant higher relative risk in women (risk ratio, 1.07 [0.98–1.17]). However, some important sex differences in the management of risk factors were observed. Compared with men with T2DM, women with T2DM were more likely to be obese, hypertensive, and have hypercholesterolemia, but were less likely to be prescribed lipid-lowering medication and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, especially if they had cardiovascular disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

Compared with men developing T2DM, women with T2DM do not have a significantly higher relative increase in cardiovascular risk, but ongoing sex disparities in prescribing should prompt heightened efforts to improve the standard and equity of diabetes mellitus care in women and men.

Publications

  • Alison K Wright,Evangelos Kontopantelis, Richard Emsley, Ian Buchan, Mamas A Mamas, Naveed Sattar, Darren M Ashcroft, Martin K Rutter, , Cardiovascular Risk and Risk Factor Management in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus A Population-Based Cohort Study Assessing Sex Disparities. Circulation, 139:2742-2753, 2019.

Clinical Code List

Rows: 132
Code Description Entity type Category Coding System (Read)
9S1..00 White res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S10.00 White British res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S11.00 White Irish res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S13.00 White Scottish res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S14.00 Other white British ethnic group res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S2..00 Black Caribbean res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S3..00 Black African res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S4..00 Black; other; non-mixed origin res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S41.00 Black British res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S42.00 Black Caribbean/W.I./Guyana res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S42.11 Black Caribbean res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S42.12 Black West Indian res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S42.13 Black Guyana res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S43.00 Black N African/Arab/Iranian res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S43.11 Black North African res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S43.12 Black Arab res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S43.13 Black Iranian res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S44.00 Black - other African country res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S45.00 Black E Afric Asia/Indo-Caribb res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S45.11 Black East African Asian res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S45.12 Black Indo-Caribbean res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S47.00 Black - other Asian res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S48.00 Black Black - other res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S5..00 Black - other; mixed res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S51.00 Other Black - Black/White orig res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S52.00 Other Black - Black/Asian orig res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S6..00 Indian res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S7..00 Pakistani res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S8..00 Bangladeshi res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9S9..00 Chinese res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA..00 Other ethnic non-mixed (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA2.00 Brit. ethnic minor. unsp (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA3.00 Caribbean I./W.I./Guyana (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA3.11 Caribbean Island (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA3.12 West Indian (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA3.13 Guyana (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA4.00 N African Arab/Iranian (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA4.11 North African Arab (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA4.12 Iranian (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA5.00 Other African countries (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA6.00 E Afric Asian/Indo-Carib (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA6.11 East African Asian (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA6.12 Indo-Caribbean (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA7.00 Indian sub-continent (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA8.00 Other Asian (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SA9.00 Irish (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SAA.00 Greek/Greek Cypriot (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SAA.11 Greek (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SAA.12 Greek Cypriot (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SAB.00 Turkish/Turkish Cypriot (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SAB.11 Turkish (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SAB.12 Turkish Cypriot (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SAC.00 Other European (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SAD.00 Other ethnic NEC (NMO) res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SB..00 Other ethnic; mixed origin res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SB1.00 Other ethnic; Black/White orig res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SB2.00 Other ethnic; Asian/White orig res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SB3.00 Other ethnic; mixed white orig res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SB4.00 Other ethnic; other mixed orig res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SB5.00 Black Caribbean and White res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SB6.00 Black African and White res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SC..00 Vietnamese res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SG..00 Other black ethnic group res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SH..00 Other Asian ethnic group res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SI..00 Irish traveller res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9SJ..00 Other ethnic group res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i0..00 British or mixed British - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i00.00 White British - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i1..00 Irish - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i10.00 White Irish - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2..00 Other White background - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i20.00 English - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i21.00 Scottish - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i22.00 Welsh - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i26.00 Cypriot (part not stated) - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i27.00 Greek - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i28.00 Greek Cypriot - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i29.00 Turkish - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2A.00 Turkish Cypriot - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2B.00 Italian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2C.00 Irish Traveller - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2D.00 Traveller - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2E.00 Gypsy/Romany - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2F.00 Polish - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2H.00 Commonwealth (Russian) Indep States - ethn categ 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2J.00 Kosovan - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2K.00 Albanian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2P.00 Other republics former Yugoslavia - ethnic categ 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2R.00 Oth White European/European unsp/Mixed European 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2S.00 Other mixed White - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i2T.00 Other White or White unspecified ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i3..00 White and Black Caribbean - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i4..00 White and Black African - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i5..00 White and Asian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i6..00 Other Mixed background - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i60.00 Black and Asian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i61.00 Black and Chinese - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i62.00 Black and White - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i63.00 Chinese and White - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i64.00 Asian and Chinese - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i7..00 Indian or British Indian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i8..00 Pakistani or British Pakistani - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9i9..00 Bangladeshi or British Bangladeshi - ethn categ 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iA..00 Other Asian background - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iA3.00 East African Asian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iA4.00 Sri Lankan - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iA5.00 Tamil - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iA6.00 Sinhalese - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iA7.00 Caribbean Asian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iA8.00 British Asian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iA9.00 Mixed Asian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iB..00 Caribbean - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iC..00 African - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iD..00 Other Black background - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iD0.00 Somali - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iD1.00 Nigerian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iD2.00 Black British - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iE..00 Chinese - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iF..00 Other - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iF0.00 Vietnamese - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iF1.00 Japanese - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iF2.00 Filipino - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iF3.00 Malaysian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iF9.00 Arab - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iFA.00 North African - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iFB.00 Mid East (excl Israeli; Iranian & Arab) - eth cat 2001 cens res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iFD.00 Iranian - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iFE.00 Kurdish - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iFG.00 Latin American - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iFH.00 South and Central American - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iFJ.00 Mauritian/Seychellois/Maldivian/St Helena eth cat 2001census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read
9iFK.00 Any other group - ethnic category 2001 census res72: Ethnicity diagnostic Read

API

To Export Phenotype Details:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH922/version/1923/detail/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH922/version/1923/detail/?format=json
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get details of phenotype

details = get_phenotype_detail_by_version('PH922', '1923', api_client=client)

To Export Phenotype Code List:

Format API
XML site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH922/version/1923/export/codes/?format=xml
JSON site_root/api/v1/public/phenotypes/PH922/version/1923/export/codes/?format=json
CSV site_root/phenotypes/PH922/version/1923/export/codes/
R Package

# Download here

library(ConceptLibraryClient)


# Connect to API

client = connect_to_API(public=TRUE)


# Get codelists of phenotype

codelists = get_phenotype_code_list('PH922', '1923', api_client=client)

Version History

Version
ID
Name Owner Publish date
1923 Ethnicity ieuan.scanlon 2022-04-04 currently shown

Export - export all codes into a csv file/JSON/XML for the current phenotype version.

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